SaraNextGen.Com
Updated By SaraNextGen
On January 25, 2024, 11:35 AM

Page No 190: - Chapter 10 Microbes In Human Welfare class 12 ncert solutions Biology - SaraNextGen [2024]


 

Question 11:

Three water samples namely river water, untreated sewage water and secondary effluent discharged from a sewage treatment plant were subjected to BOD test. The samples were labelled A, B and C; but the laboratory attendant did not note which was which. The BOD values of the three samples A, B and C were recorded as 20mg/L, 8mg/L and 400mg/L, respectively. Which sample of the water is most polluted? Can you assign the correct label to each assuming the river water is relatively clean?

Answer:

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the method of determining the amount of oxygen required by micro-organisms to decompose the waste present in the water supply. If the quantity of organic wastes in the water supply is high, then the number of decomposing bacteria present in the water will also be high. As a result, the BOD value will increase.

Therefore, it can be concluded that if the water supply is more polluted, then it will have a higher BOD value. Out of the above three samples, sample C is the most polluted since it has the maximum BOD value of 400 mg/L. After untreated sewage water, secondary effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant is most polluted. Thus, sample A is secondary effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant and has the BOD value of 20 mg/L, while sample B is river water and has the BOD value of 8 mg/L.

Hence, the correct label for each sample is:

Label

BOD value

Sample

A.

20 mg/L

Secondary effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant

B.

8 mg/L

River water

C.

400 mg/L

Untreated sewage water

Find out the name of the microbes from which Cyclosporin A (an immunosuppressive drug) and Statins (blood cholesterol lowering agents) are obtained.Question 12:

Answer:

 

Drug

Function

Microbe

1.

Cyclosporine −A

Immuno suppressive drug

Trichoderma polysporum

2.

Statin

Blood cholesterol lowering agent

Monascus purpureus

Question 13:

Find out the role of microbes in the following and discuss it with your teacher.

(a) Single cell protein (SCP)

(b) Soil

Answer:

(a) Single cell protein (SCP)

A single cell protein is a protein obtained from certain microbes, which forms an alternate source of proteins in animal feeds. The microbes involved in the preparation of single cell proteins are algae, yeast, or bacteria. These microbes are grown on an industrial scale to obtain the desired protein. For example, Spirulina can be grown on waste materials obtained from molasses, sewage, and animal manures. It serves as a rich supplement of dietary nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrate, fats, minerals, and vitamins. Similarly, micro-organisms such as Methylophilus and methylotrophus have a large rate of biomass production. Their growth can produce a large amount of proteins.

(b) Soil

Microbes play an important role in maintaining soil fertility. They help in the formation of nutrient-rich humus by the process of decomposition. Many species of bacteria and cyanobacteria have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable form. Rhizobium is a symbiotic bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants. Azospirillium and Azotobocter are free living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, whereas Anabena, Nostoc, and Oscillitoria are examples of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.

Question 14:

Arrange the following in the decreasing order (most important first) of their importance, for the welfare of human society. Give reasons for your Answer.

Biogas, Citric acid, Penicillin and Curd

Answer:

The order of arrangement of products according to their decreasing importance is:

Penicillin- Biogas − Citric acid − Curd

Penicillin is the most important product for the welfare of human society. It is an antibiotic, which is used for controlling various bacterial diseases. The second most important product is biogas. It is an eco-friendly source of energy. The next important product is citric acid, which is used as a food preservative. The least important product is curd, a food item obtained by the action of lactobacillus bacteria on milk

Hence, the products in the decreasing order of their importance are as follows:

Penicillin- Biogas − Citric acid − Curd

Question 15:

How do biofertilisers enrich the fertility of the soil?

Answer:

Bio-fertilizers are living organisms which help in increasing the fertility of soil. It involves the selection of beneficial micro-organisms that help in improving plant growth through the supply of plant nutrients. These are introduced to seeds, roots, or soil to mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity. Thus, they are extremely beneficial in enriching the soil with organic nutrients. Many species of bacteria and cyanobacteria have the ability to fix free atmospheric nitrogen. Rhizobium is a symbiotic bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants. Azospirillium and Azotobocter are free living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, whereas Anabena, Nostoc, and Oscillitoria are examples of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Bio-fertilizers are cost effective and eco-friendly.

Also Read : INTRODUCTION-Chapter-11-Biotechnology-Principles-class-12-ncert-solutions-Biology

SaraNextGen